“Cartola is a variation on the common technique of sautéing bananas in butter to create a dessert dish. In the USA the same basic technique is the origin of New Orleans’ famous Bananas Foster, and there are countless other variations. What makes cartola unique is that the sweetened and fried banana is combined with cheese. It does sound like an ungainly combination I know, but as weird as bananas-and-cheese might sound, the taste is marvelous.” 
“Originating from the homes of sugar barons, its recipe is the result of a mixture of ingredients, techniques and cultural habits of the Portuguese colonizers, the indigenous people that lived in the region and the African slaves. It’s a taste of the miscenegation of the three main groups of people that formed the culture of the Northeast.” 
See the recipe here. As you’ll read in the recipe link and see in the video below, in Pernambuco, where the dessert comes from, they use cheese called queijo manteiga. The closest thing in the US would be queso de freir, though I think butterkäse or Amish butter cheese (which I’m pretty sure are the same thing) would also work.